Comparison of Human Resource (HR) and Human Capital

Oleh: Marisa

The terms Human Resource (HR) and Human Capital are often used in the context of workforce management in organizations, but these two concepts have important differences in terms of definition, focus, and implementation. This article will discuss the comparison between HR and Human Capital, and how they contribute to organizational success.


Human Resource (HR)

Human Resource (HR) refers to the department or function within an organization that is responsible for various aspects related to employee management. HR includes activities such as recruitment, training, performance management, payroll, employee welfare, and compliance with labor regulations. The main focus of HR is to ensure that the organization has the necessary human resources to operate effectively.



  • Administration: HR focuses on administrative management such as payroll, employment contracts, and legal compliance.
  • Operational: HR ensures day-to-day workforce-related processes run smoothly, including recruitment, training, and performance management.
  • Needs Fulfillment: HR aims to meet the organization’s workforce needs in the short and medium term.


  • Recruitment and Selection: The process of sourcing and selecting the right candidates.
  • Training and Development: Training programs to improve employee skills.
  • Performance Management: System to assess and manage employee performance.
  • Employee Welfare: Programs to ensure employees’ physical and mental well-being.



Role in the Organization

HR plays a role in ensuring workforce operations run smoothly, complying with labor regulations, and handling day-to-day employee issues. HR is the custodian of policies and procedures that help the organization function efficiently.


Human Capital

Human Capital, on the other hand, is a broader and strategic concept that considers employees as a critical asset to the organization. Human Capital includes the knowledge, skills, competencies, and other attributes possessed by individuals and which can add value to the organization. The focus of Human Capital is on investing in employee development and how their value can be maximized to achieve business objectives.


  • Investment: Human Capital sees employees as investments that need to be developed to provide higher returns for the organization.
  • Value Addition: The focus is on how to increase the value of employees through training, development, and empowerment.
  • Strategic: Human Capital has a long-term view of how employee skills and competencies can be aligned with business strategy to achieve competitive advantage.


  • Employee Development Strategy: A long-term plan for the development of employee skills and competencies.
  • Value Measurement: Tools and metrics to measure the contribution and added value of employees.
  • Innovation and Creativity: Encouraging employees to innovate and contribute to business process improvement.
  • Assessment and Improvement: Continuous evaluation and increased investment in employee education and training.

Role in the Organization

Human Capital plays a role in building and managing the intellectual assets and competencies of the organization. This includes developing long-term strategies to increase employee capacity and maximize their contribution to the organization’s business goals.


HR and Human Capital are two complementary concepts in workforce management. HR focuses more on the operational and administrative aspects of managing employees, while Human Capital emphasizes on the strategic value of employees and investing in their development. A successful organization is one that is able to integrate these two approaches, ensuring operational efficiency while strategically developing and harnessing the potential of employees to achieve competitive advantage.

In the ever-evolving business world, a deep understanding of the difference between Human Resource (HR) and Human Capital is essential. HR focuses on operational and administrative aspects, such as recruitment, training, and performance management, as well as ensuring compliance with labor regulations. In contrast, Human Capital emphasizes the importance of employees as strategic assets, with investments in skills and competency development that can add value to the organization in the long run.

For companies and individuals looking to excel in this competitive era, mastering these two concepts can be the key to success. Efficient HR ensures smooth operations, while a strategic Human Capital approach drives innovation and sustainable growth.

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